Responsibility is not, though, surrendered, as no manager avoids ultimate responsibility by delegating. Here, the subordinates are not involved in the decision-making process.
The model was developed on the basis of a questionnaire administered to managers in over organizations and research into the performance characteristics of different types of organizations. Its Management and Value.
Lateral interaction or teamwork between subordinates lacks in this system based on managerial interactions. There is no participation of workers because these leaders have no confidence in them.
With these four systems of management, Likert studied seven variables Viz.
Workers are often found highly demotivated due to exploitation by management. In these Systems communication becomes an effective tool of knowledge sharing and problem-solving.
The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates. The superior has that much trust and confidence in his subordinates which is required in a master-servant relationship. An Open Systems Approach.
The consultative system is characterized by a great flow of information both horizontally and vertically. Writers on Organizations, Second Edition, London: Responsibility for achieving the organizational goals is widespread throughout the organizational hierarchy.
Important in the above is the recognition that involvement of people in examining the problems and seeking to develop solutions. Subordinates feel completely free to discuss things about the job with their superior. System 3 Consultative differs greatly from System 1 and System 2.
This model has upward orientation and decision-making scale having 51 items for evaluating leadership styles of individual leaders. Has condescending confidence and trust in subordinates such as master has to a servant.
Responsibility for achieving the goals of the organization is spread more widely throughout the hierarchy. There is no proper confidence in subordinates and the relationship is that of a master and servant.
In contrast to System 1, System 2 Benevolent authoritative can be describes as a condescending form of leadership. There is a fair amount of teamwork, and communication takes place vertically and horizontally.
Management does not trust employees, therefore they are not part of decision making processes. There are certain persons who are members of more than one group.
The teamwork or communication is very little and the motivation is based on threats. When compared to the first two systems, employees have more freedom to communicate and make company decisions.
Approach to management proposed by Rensis Likert is based on so called system approach to management which views organizations as systems. Management Style and Productivity in Two Cultures.
System 3 - Consultative: The subordinates get motivated through rewards for their participation in the decision-making process. The responsibility lies at the managerial levels but not at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17 4— Similar to System 4, motivation becomes as goal-directed behavior and ability to contribute to a solution.
Four systems stress the need for more understanding in the development of sophisticated problem-solving techniques. In Systems 2, 3, 4, a leader inspires employees and motivates them to achieve objectives and goals. This results in mostly downward communication from supervisors to employees.
He describes this mainly to the extent of participation in management and the extent to which the practice of supportive relationship is mentioned. In considering the limits of authority, an obvious limitation is that action must conform with policies and programs of the organization.
There is a high level of confidence that the superior has in his subordinates. Likert has isolated three variables which are representative of his total concept of system 4.According to Likert the four management systems are: System 1 (Exploitive authoritative); System 2 (Benevolent authoritative); System 3 (Consultative); and System 4 (Participative group) (Likert, ).
He has given a continuum of four systems of management (in his management system). Likert has taken seven variables of different management systems.
These variables include leadership, motivation, communication, interaction influence, decision-making process, goal setting and control process. Likert's four systems on leadership 1.
OVERVIEW: A Brief Introduction about RENESIS LIKERT. What LIKERT SCALE is all about? With an example. Linking Pin Model? LIKERT’s FOUR SYSTEM. Advantages. Conclusion. 2. Renesis Likert - An American Educator &A Organizational Psychologist.
The four systems of management system or the four leadership styles identified by Likert are: System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative: Responsibility lies in the hands of the people at the upper echelons of the hierarchy.
The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates. Likert’s management systems are management styles developed by Rensis Likert in the s. He outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement, and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings. He outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement, and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings.
He based the systems on studies of highly productive supervisors and their team members of an American Insurance Company.Download